Space agencies out of Europe
Brazilian Space Agency (AEB - Agência Espacial Brasileira) was established on February 10 1994. Its main tasks include creation and coordination of the Brazilian space policy, also the establishment of the Security Regulations in order to launch satellites and spacecrafts into space. The Brazilian government offered a large autonomy at the federal level to the Ministry of Science and Technology in space area. AEB has a similar autonomy which is responsible for its activities only to the President of Brazil. It is an administratively and financially independent authority which is based in the capital Brasilia.
AEB was established by a special law. This law provides additional competences to AEB, including cooperation with other countries in space activities. The organizational structure is composed of the President, Council, Director General and five departments. AEB is not the only one institution in Brazil operating in space related activities. There are present other players such as the National Institute for Space Research (INPE) and the Institute of Aeronautics and Space (IAE).
AEB has cooperation with these countries: Germany, Argentina, China, Chile, Columbia, USA, France, Russia, Ukraine, India.
AEB also cooperates with ESA (European Space Agency), ITU (International Telecommunication Union), IAF (International Astronautical Federation) and COPUOS (Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space).
Canada has a very close cooperation with ESA but it is not its full member state. Responsible authority for space activities is CSA (Canadian Space Agency). It was created through an Act of Parliament, proclaimed in December 1990. The Agency has a status equivalent to that of a Department of the Government of Canada and reports to Parliament through Minister of Industry.
CSA is committed to leading the development and application of space knowledge for the benefit of Canadians and humanity. The vision of CSA is: "To promote the peaceful use and development of space, to advance the knowledge of space through science and to ensure that space science and technology provide social and economic benefits for Canadians."
The agency directs its resources and activities through four key programmes:
Space Science and Exploration
Space Awareness and Learning
Headquarters of the agency (the John H. Chapman Space Centre) is located in Longueuil, Quebec. It has about 670 employees (approximately 90% of them employed at the headquarters). The Agency has other staff working in Ottawa, Houston, Washington and Paris.
In Japan, space activities are managed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). JAXA is an independent administrative institution which was created by merging of three organizations:
- Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)
- National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan (NAL)
- National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA)
JAXA has published its own long-term vision “JAXA2025”. Basic assumptions of the vision are as follows:
- To build a secure and prosperous society through the utilization of aerospace technology.
- To prepare for the unravelling of the mysteries of the universe and for lunar utilization, in order to seek the origins of the Earth and humankind.
- To implement world-class space transportation and Japan´s indigenous space activities.
- To develop aerospace as Japan´s next key industry.
- To establish Japan´s aviation industry and develop supersonic aircraft.
JAXA has 4 headquarters and it performs all operations at test facilities and laboratories across Japan. JAXA has also offices outside Japan (USA, France, Thailand). JAXA employs 1649 people.
USA is great power in space area. The US agency which covers the space activities is NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). NASA was founded in 1958. It is a federal agency which is financed and managed by the Congress.
NASA's mission is to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research. NASA conducts its work in four principal organizations (so called mission directorates):
Aeronautics: pioneers and proves new flight technologies that improve our ability to explore and which have practical applications on Earth.
Exploration Systems: creates capabilities for sustainable human and robotic exploration.
Science: explores the Earth, solar system and universe beyond; charts the best route of discovery; and reaps the benefits of Earth and space exploration for society.
Space Operations: provides critical enabling technologies for much of the rest of NASA through the space shuttle, the International Space Station and flight support.
The budget of NASA was 18.686 billion USD in 2010. NASA headquarters is located in Washington D.C. Another research centres are:
Ames Research Center
Dryden Flight Research Center
Electronics Research Center (1964-1970)
John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field
Goddard Space Flight Center
Jet Propulsion Laboratory Archives
Johnson Space Center
Kennedy Space Center
KSC History of Human Spaceflight
Langley Research Center
George C. Marshall Space Flight Center
John C. Stennis Space Center